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细基江蓠和真江蓠野生种群生长海域水质
营养盐特征及富营养化评价
作者:  杰1 2 戴晓玲1 章增林1 张紫英1 陈日钊1 黄国强2  琼2 李文红1* 
单位: (1广西大学 动物科学技术学院/广西高校水生生物健康养殖与营养调控重点实验室 南宁 530004  
关键词: 细基江蓠 真江蓠 营养盐 富营养化 单因子污染指数(Di) 富营养化指数(Ei) 
分类号:S968.434
出版年,卷(期):页码:2017,48(8):1511-1517
摘要:

【目的】了解江蓠生长海域水质营养盐特征和富营养化变化规律,为海洋牧场建设及富营养化海域人工修复的藻种选择提供科学依据。【方法】以细基江蓠和真江蓠常年生长的广西北海大冠沙乌黎村和下村海域为研究对象,通过周年监测氨态氮(NH4+-N)、硝态氮(NO3--N)、亚硝态氮(NO2--N)、活性磷酸盐(DIP)、化学需氧量(COD)等水质指标,采用单因子污染指数法和富营养化指数评价法,并结合氮磷比(N/P)状况研究细基江蓠和真江蓠野生种群生长海域水质营养盐特征及富营养化水平。【结果】细基江蓠生长海域溶解无机氮(DIN)和DIP含量超过四类海水水质标准的月份比例为67%和83%,COD符合三类和四类海水水质标准的比例为75%;N/P周年波动范围为3.46~18.14,平均值9.05,低于Redfield系数的月份比例为92%,氮限制为营养盐结构的主要特征;富营养化指数(Ei)周年波动范围为5.62~123.25,平均值35.04,呈严重富营养化状态,不同季节的Ei平均值排序为:秋季(54.42)>夏季(41.95)>冬季(32.75)>春季(11.06)。真江蓠生长海域DIN和DIP符合一类或二类海水水质标准,COD符合三类和四类海水水质标准的月份比例为100%,N/P周年波动范围为1.22~85.45,平均值26.24,高于Redfield系数的月份比例为58%,磷限制为营养盐结构的主要特征;Ei周年波动范围为1.82~12.75,呈多种富营养化状态(贫、轻度、中度、重度和严重富营养化),不同季节的Ei平均值排序为:夏季(12.75)>秋季(4.91)>春季(2.13)>冬季(1.82)。【结论】广西北海细基江蓠和真江蓠野生种群主要以DIN和DIP为生长所需的营养盐,可生活在多种富营养化状态的海域中,二者均适宜作为海洋牧场建设及富营养化海域人工修复的藻种,但细基江蓠对富营养化水体的耐受性优于真江蓠。

【Objective】In order to provide reference for Gracilaria sellection for construction of marine ranching and artificial restoration of eutrophic sea area,the present experiment was conducted to investigate the characteristics of nutrients and the level of eutrophication in Gracilaria growing sea area. 【Method】G. tenuistipitata and G. asiatica growing in sea area of Wuli Village and Xiacun Village, Daguansha, Beihai, Guangxi were research objectives. Water quality indicators including ammoniacal nitrogen(NH4+-N), nitrate nitrogen(NO3--N), nitrite nitrogen(NO2--N), labile phosphate(DIP) and chemical oxygen demand(COD) were monitored annually. Single factor pollution index method and eutrophication evaluation method were applied to investigate characteristics of nutrients and the level of eutrophication of water quality for G. tenuistipitata and G. asiatica growing sea area combining nitrogen-phosphorus ratio(N/P). 【Result】67% proportion of inorganic nitrogen(DIN) in month basis and 83% proportion of DIP in month basis monitoring data exceeded the fourth grade seawater quality in G. tenuistipitata growing sea area, 75% proportion of COD monitoring data was in accordance with the third and fourth grade seawater quality. Annual variation of N/P ranged from 3.46 to 18.14,and the mean value was 9.05, 92% proportion of N/P in month basis were lower than the Redfield value. The main characteristics of nutrients was nitrogen-limited. Eutrophication index(Ei) ranged from 11.06 to 54.42 with average of 35.04, presented severe eutrophication state. The rank of aveareg Ei for various seasons was: autumn (54.42)>summer(41.95)>winter(32.75)>spring(11.06). In G. asiatica growing sea area, 100% proportion of DIN and DIP in month basis monitoring data matched the first and second grade seawater quality, 100% proportion of COD in month basis monitoring data was in accordance with the third and fourth grade seawater quality. Annual variation of N/P was 1.22-85.45 with average of 26.24,58% proportion of N/P in month basis was lower than the Redfield value. The main characteristics of nutrients was phosphrous-limited. Annual change of Ei ranged from 1.82 to 12.75, and the eutrophication states were various(poor, mild, moderate, serious and severe). The rank of average Ei for various seasons was:summer(12.75)>autumn(4.91)>spring(2.13)>winter(1.82). 【Conclusion】DIN and DIP are the main nutrients for wild G. tenuistipitata and G. asiatica populations growing in Beihai, Guangxi. G. tenuistipitata and G. asiatica can grow in sea water with several eutrophication conditions. They are both suitable speices for construction of marine ranching and artificial restoration of eutrophic sea area, but resistance of G. tenuistipitata to eutrophic water is stronger than G. asiatica.

基金项目:
广西自然科学基金项目(2013GXNSFDA019012);广西海洋生物技术重点实验室开放基金项目(GLMBT-201502)
作者简介:
*为通讯作者,李文红(1966-),博士,教授,主要从事水产动物健康养殖与渔业环境研究工作,E-mail:whli66@163.com。于杰(1991-),研究方向为水产动物健康养殖与渔业环境,E-mail:271659762@qq.com
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