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10份云南特异野生桑树种质资源的搜集与评价
作者:    文* 吴克军 李镇刚   储一宁* 
单位: (云南省农业科学院 蚕桑蜜蜂研究所 云南 蒙自 661101) 
关键词: 桑树 野生 种质资源 搜集 评价 云南 
分类号:S888.3
出版年,卷(期):页码:2017,48(8):1504-1510
摘要:

【目的】从云南野生桑树种质资源中挖掘果桑新品种培育的基础材料,为创建新型果桑种质资源打下基础。【方法】通过野外考察搜集云南地区野生桑树种质资源,优选出10份性状特异的野生桑树资源,并进行桑叶营养成分、主要经济性状、种子萌芽率和挂果性状等调查分析。【结果】在10份云南特异野生桑树种质资源中,有2份资源开雄花,雄花花序特长,易收集花粉,可作为育种的父本;1份资源为广东桑,挂果性强,果大且成熟整齐,可直接应用;1份资源为蒙桑,桑果虽小,但结果多,且结实率和发芽率高,是抗旱砧木选育的理想资源;其余6份资源为长果桑,果大且长、挂果能力强、生长势强劲,可与栽培品种杂交培育出长果型果叶两用新品种。【结论】供试的10份云南特异野生桑树种质资源作为可多元化开发利用果桑的基础品种,应选择适宜地区栽植,或进一步与栽培品种杂交,培育出新的品种材料。

【Objetive】Basic materials for breeding new fruit mulberry varieties from wild mulberry resources in Yunnan were explored in order to lay foundation for creating new mulberry germplasm resources. 【Method】Ten peculiar mulberry germplasm resources were selected from collected wild mulberry resources in Yunnan. Their leaf nutrition, main economic characters, seed germination rate and fruiting traits were investigated and analyzed. 【Result】Among ten peculiar wild mulberry resources, two of them could be used as male parent in breeding, because their male inflorescences were especially long and the pollen were easy to be collected. One of them was Morus atropurpurea Roxb., with strong ability of fruit setting, large fruits, and uniform degree of maturity, which could be utilized directly. One of them was M. mongolica Schneid. with small fruits, which can be used as ideal drought-resistant rootstock breeding resources, because of its strong ability of fruit setting, high setting percentage and high germination rate. The other six were M. laevigata Wall., with large and long fruits, strong ability of fruit setting and strong growth potential, which could be used to interbreed with cultivated varieties for new variety providing fruit and leaf. 【Conclusion】The tested ten specific wild mulberry resources, as basic race to develop diversifying mulberry resources, can be planted in suitable planting areas, or in a further crossbreeding program with cultivated varieties, thus developing new varieties of material.

基金项目:
云南省现代农业产业技术体系建设专项项目(2013KJTX006);云南省农业科学院农业科技创新及成果转化专项项目(2017RA01401)
作者简介:
*为通讯作者:杨文(1971-),研究员,主要从事蚕桑成果转化与示范推广研究工作,E-mail:yangwen161@163.com;储一宁(1964-),研究员,主要从事桑树种质资源与育种研究工作,E-mail:15094170417@163.com。杜伟(1985-),主要从事桑树栽培及生理生化研究工作,E-mail:yg123.456@126.com
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