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4种生物杀虫剂对桑蓟马的室内毒力测定
及田间防效试验
作者: 柴建萍 谢道燕 江秀均 罗雁婕  平* 
单位: (云南省农业科学院 蚕桑蜜蜂研究所 云南 蒙自 661101) 
关键词: 生物杀虫剂 桑蓟马 毒力 防治效果 
分类号:S435.79;S888.72
出版年,卷(期):页码:2017,48(8):1409-1414
摘要:

【目的】了解4种生物源杀虫剂对桑蓟马的毒力及其在自然环境下对桑蓟马的防治效果,为桑蓟马防治药剂的选择或高效、安全混配药剂研发提供数据支持。【方法】采用浸叶法测定鱼藤酮、藜芦碱、苦皮藤素和乙基多杀菌素等4种生物杀虫剂对桑蓟马的室内毒力;并依次配制4种杀虫剂的1、2和4倍推荐剂量于桑蓟马为害时期进行田间防治试验,于药前及药后1、3、5和7 d定株调查虫口存活数,计算校正防治效果,应用SPSS 17.0对各药剂的防治效果进行差异显著性分析。【结果】4种药剂对桑蓟马的毒力排序为 60 g/L乙基多杀菌素悬浮剂>7.5%鱼藤酮乳油>1%苦皮藤素乳油>0.5%藜芦碱可溶性液剂。田间试验结果表明,除乙基多杀菌素外的其他3种药剂均随剂量浓度增大其防效增强;60 g/L乙基多杀菌素悬浮剂各浓度药后1~5 d的防效介于90.6%~99.8%,其各浓度的防效均大于其他3种药剂,其中7.5%鱼藤酮乳油1倍推荐剂量下药后1~3 d的防效(30.0%~85.3%)与60 g/L乙基多杀菌素悬浮剂防效(90.6%~99.0%)无显著差异(P>0.05,下同),因降雨作用其药后5 d防效丧失,说明持效性较差;1倍推荐剂量下,1%苦皮藤素乳油和0.5%藜芦碱可溶性液剂防效较低,其药后1~5 d的防效分别介于45.7%~57.2%和23.3%~64.5%,且二者间差异不显著。2倍推荐剂量下,1%苦皮藤素乳油和0.5%藜芦碱可溶性液剂药后1~5 d的防效分别介于57.4%~65.8%和57.0%~78.9%,二者防效接近。【结论】桑园桑蓟马防治以60 g/L乙基多杀菌素悬浮剂(1500倍)为首选药剂,其次为7.5%鱼藤酮乳油(1500倍)。雨季施用7.5%鱼藤酮乳油以750倍液、1%苦皮藤素乳油以600倍液、0.5%藜芦碱可溶性液剂以400倍液的防效较好。

【Objective】Toxicity of four biopesticides against Pseudodendrothrips mori and their control effects in natural environment were studied to provide reference for selection of pestcides against P. mori and development of safe mixed pestcides. 【Method】Leaf dipping method was usd to test indoor toxicity of four biopesticides( rotenon, veratrine, celangulins and spinetoramx) against P. mori. 1×, 2×, 4× recommended dosoge of each pesticide were prepared for field control experiment during P. mori damage period. The survival number of P. mori was investigated in fixed trees 1, 3, 5 and 7 d before and after pesticides application. Correction control effect was calculated. Also, significant difference analysis for control effect of every pesticide was conducted by software SPSS 17.0. 【Result】The toxicity of the four pesticides against P. mori was ranked as follows: 60 g/L spinetoramx SC >7.5% rotenon EC >1% celangulins EC >0.5% veratrine SL. The field experiment showed that the control effects of three pesticides increased with the rise of dose concentration except for spinetoramx. The control effects of each dosoge of 60 g/L spinetoramx was 90.6%-99.8% 1-5 d after application, which were higher than the other three pesticides. There was no significant differences between control effects 1-3 d after 1× recommended dosoge of 7.5% rotenon EC(30.0%-85.3%) and that of 60 g/L spinetoramx SC(90.6%-99.0%)(P>0.05, the same below). The control effect of rotenon was not available 5 d after application due to rainfall, indicating its poor persistence. Under 1× recommended dosage, the control effects of 1% celangulins EC and 0.5% veratrine SL was not good. The effects 1-5 d after application were 45.5%-57.2% and 23.3%-64.5% respectively, and there was no significant differences between them. Under 2× recommended dosage, the control effects of 1% celangulins EC and 0.5% veratrine SL 1-5 d after application were 57.4%-65.8% and 57.0%-78.9% respectively, and the control effects were close. 【Conclusion】60 g/L spinetoramx SC(1500×) is the first-choice pesticide for controling P. mori, 7.5% rotenon EC is the second choice. During rainy season, 750 times liquid of 7.5 rotenon EC, 600 times liquid of 1% celangulins EC and 400 times liquid of veratrine SL can achieve sound control effects.

基金项目:
云南省科技计划项目(2015BB009);现代农业产业技术体系建设专项项目(CARS-22-SYZ27)
作者简介:
*为通讯作者,黄平(1969-),研究员,主要从事蚕桑学研究工作,E-mail:hp6988@vip.soho.com。柴建萍(1970-),副研究员,主要从事桑树病虫害防控研究工作,E-mail:chaijp@163.com
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