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不同冬种模式对后茬杂交水稻干物质
积累、分配及产量形成的影响
作者: 黄佑岗 冯跃华* 许桂玲     牟桂婷 张佳凤 管正策 王均宜 
单位: (贵州大学 农学院 贵阳 550025) 
关键词: 杂交水稻 冬种模式 干物质 积累 分配 产量 
分类号:S511.044
出版年,卷(期):页码:2017,48(8):1402-1408
摘要:

【目的】探寻贵州喀斯特地区不同冬种模式对后茬杂交水稻干物质积累、分配及产量形成的影响,为该地区绿色、高效、循环复合种植模式的筛选提供参考。【方法】2015~2016年以杂交水稻中优808为试验材料,设冬闲—水稻(A处理,冬闲对照)、油菜—水稻(B处理)、蔬菜—水稻(C处理)、马铃薯—水稻(D处理)和绿肥—水稻(E处理)5种冬种模式,测定水稻不同生育期的叶面积指数、干物质积累量、产量及产量构成因素等。【结果】不同冬种模式下,C处理的后茬水稻叶面积指数(3.30)在拔节期显著高于A处理(2.31)(P<0.05,下同),但与B、D和E处理无显著差异(P>0.05,下同);B和E处理的叶面积指数分别在孕穗期、抽穗期最大,且显著高于其他处理。成熟期干物质积累量、总生物量排序为C处理>B处理>E处理>D处理>A处理,冬种农作物或绿肥处理的后茬水稻干物质积累量均高于冬闲对照。从产量构成来看,B处理的有效穗数最高(221.62万穗/ha);D处理的每穗总粒数最多(181.03粒/穗);C处理的水稻结实率最高(90.58%)。各冬种农作物处理的水稻产量均高于冬闲对照,其中C处理产量最高,达10480.23 kg/ha;其次是D和B处理,产量分别达10245.80和10069.99 kg/ha。【结论】在施肥量相同的条件下,合理利用冬闲田种植农作物或绿肥可促进后茬水稻干物质的积累,一定程度上促进水稻增产,其中蔬菜—水稻、马铃薯—水稻和油菜—水稻3种冬种模式的增产优势明显,是适合贵州喀斯特地区的复合种植模式。

【Objective】The aim of this experiment was to find out the effects on dry matter accumulation, distribution and yield composition of succeeding hybrid rice varieties under different winter planting patterns in Guizhou karst areas, and provide reference for selection of the green,efficient and cyclic compound cropping pattern. 【Method】Using hybrid rice Zhongyou 808 as test material in 2015 and 2016,the test was conducted with five winter planting patterns including idleland-rice(treatment A,control),rape-rice(treatment B),vegetable-rice(treatment C),potato-rice(treatment D)and green manure-rice(treatment E). Leaf area index,dry matter accumulation,yield and yield composition of rice at different developmental stages were measured in all treatments. 【Result】At jointing stage,the leaf area index of treatment C(3.30)was significantly higher than that of treatment A(2.31)(P<0.05,the same below),but there was no significant difference with treatment C and treatments B,D and E(P>0.05,the same below). The leaf area index of treatments B and E were the highest at booting stage and heading stage,and significantly higher than those in the other treatments. At maturity stage,the rank of dry matter accumulation and total biomass of rice under different winter planting patterns was: treatment C>treatment B>treatment E>treatment D>treatment A. In the treatments of winter planting crops and green manure,the dry matter accumulation of rice were higher than idleland control. From the perspective of yield components,effective panicles of treatment B was the highest(221.62×104 panicle/ha);grain number per panicle of treatment D(181.03 grain/panicle)was the largest;the setting rate of treatment C was the highest(90.58%). In the treatments of winter planting crops and green manure,the rice yields were higher than idleland control,the yield of treatment C was the highest(10480.23 kg/ha),followed by treatment D(10245.80 kg/ha)and treatment B(10069.99 kg/ha). 【Conclusion】Under the same amount of fertilizer,in winter,planting crops and green manure is conducive to increase dry matter accumulation of rice,and at certain extents increases rice yield. The three planting patterns, vegetable-rice, potato-rice and rape-rice, have obvious advantages in yield increase. They are compound planting patterns suitable for karst area in Guizhou.

基金项目:
国家自然科学基金项目(31360311,31160263);公益性行业(农业)科研专项项目(201503118-03);贵州大学研究生创新基金项目(研农2017024)
作者简介:
*为通讯作者,冯跃华(1969-),教授,主要从事作物栽培学研究工作,E-mail:fengyuehua2006@126.com。黄佑岗(1991-),研究方向为作物栽培理论与技术,E-mail:huangyougangyn@163.com
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