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 保护性耕作模式下早稻田甲烷排放特征
作者: 卢廷超1 2 徐培智1 2* 张仁陟1 解开治2 卢钰升2 顾文杰2 
单位: (1甘肃农业大学 资源与环境学院 兰州 730070 2广东省农业科学院 农业资源与环境研究所 广州 510640) 
关键词: 早稻 稻田 甲烷(CH4) 日变化 保护性耕作 
分类号:S154.3
出版年,卷(期):页码:2017,48(8):1395-1401
摘要:

【目的】研究耕作对早稻田甲烷排放的影响,并分析影响稻田甲烷排放的环境因子,寻找合适的耕作模式以减少稻田甲烷排放。【方法】设免耕不施肥、免耕施肥、常规不施肥和常规施肥4个处理,分别在水稻分蘖期和水稻抽穗期采用静态箱法收集气态甲烷(CH4),同步观测地温、采气箱内温度、环境温度、地表温度、草面温度、相对湿度及风速,探究早稻田CH4排放的日排放规律,明确免耕和施肥及环境因素对稻田CH4排放的影响。【结果】早稻田CH4的排放与气温、地表温度、5 cm土温、草面温度、相对湿度、风速等密切相关,尤其在分蘖期,各处理均与上述环境因子显著相关(P<0.05)。不同耕作与施肥模式下,CH4日平均通量不同,在水稻分蘖期具体表现为常规施肥>常规不施肥>免耕施肥>免耕不施肥,在水稻抽穗期表现为常规不施肥>免耕施肥>常规施肥>免耕不施肥。【结论】免耕与常规耕作相比,早稻田CH4的排放量相对降低;施肥导致分蘖期早稻田CH4排放通量增加,但在抽穗期导致早稻田CH4排放减少。免耕可以减轻早稻田CH4的排放,其推广能为稻田减排做贡献。

【Objective】This paper aimed to research the effects of tillage methods on methane emission from early rice paddy fields, explore the environmental factors that affected methane emissions from paddy fields, and search for suitable tillage pattern to reduce methane emissions from rice fields. 【Method】Four treatments were set: conventional tillage and no-fertilization, conventional tillage and fertilizer, no-tillage and no-fertilizer and no-tillage and fertilization. Gaseous methane(CH4) was gathered by using static box method at rice tillering stage and heading stage. At the same time, earth temperature, gas-collection box temperature, ambient temperature, surface temperature, grass surface temperature, relative humidity and wind speed were observed. The study explored the diurnal variation of CH4 emission fluxes in early rice paddy fields and the effect of no-tillage, fertilization and environmental factors on CH4 emission from paddy field. 【Result】The emission of CH4 in early rice paddy fields was closely related to air temperature, surface temperature, temperature of soil in 5 cm depth, grass surface temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. CH4 emission fluxes under four treatments were significantly related to the environmental factors(P<0.05) especially at tillering stage. The daily average CH4 emission fluxes under different treatments were different. At tillering stage, daily average CH4 emission fluxes were as follows: conventional tillage and fertilization>conventional tillage and no-fertilization>no-tillage and fertilization>no tillage and no- fertilization; the rank at heading stage was conventional tillage and no-fertilization>no-tillage and fertilization>conventional tillage and fertilization>no tillage and no-fertilization. 【Conclusion】The CH4 emission from paddy field in no-tillage treatment is lower than conventional tillage treatment. Fertilization results in an increase in CH4 emission from paddy fields at the tillering stage, but leads to a decrease in CH4 emissions from early rice paddy fields at heading stage. The extension of no-tillage contributes to the reduction of CH4 emissions from rice fields, which can be promoted in cultivation for emission reduction.

基金项目:
广东省农业面源污染治理项目(2016B070701009);广东省科技计划项目(2014B090904068,粤科规财字[2014]208号)
作者简介:
*为通讯作者,徐培智(1963-),研究员,主要从事植物营养与新型肥料研究工作,E-mail:pzxu007@163.com。卢廷超(1989-),研究方向为基础生态学,E-mail:641274331@qq.com
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