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植物叶色黄化突变分子机理的研究进展
作者: 刘新亮1 李先民2 何小三1 邱凤英1  挺1* 
单位: 刘新亮1 李先民2 何小三1 邱凤英1  挺1* 
关键词: 叶色黄化突变 叶绿素合成 叶绿体发育 叶绿体蛋白代谢 
分类号:S311
出版年,卷(期):页码:2017,48(8):1358-1366
摘要:

植物叶色黄化突变具有突变频率高、易鉴别等特点,不仅是基础研究的理想材料,在品种选育和改良中也有重要的利用价值。文章从叶绿素生物合成、血红素代谢、叶绿体发育及叶绿体蛋白代谢等方面,对植物叶色突变相关基因的功能和作用机理进行综述,发现目前对叶色突变分子机理的研究主要集中在叶色突变相关基因功能方面,针对质核信号转导、转录因子及调控元件的研究较少,因此,今后在相关研究中可利用叶色突变体这一理想材料分析鉴定相关基因功能及其互作关系,从对单一基因的研究转向对多个基因甚至功能基因组的系统研究,尤其加强对质核信号转导、转录因子及调控元件的研究;叶色突变体作为作物品种改良的一类特殊种质资源,可通过人工诱导方式增加植物突变频率,在较短时间内获得大量叶色突变体,应用于基因功能及基因间的互作关系等研究,为黄叶植株的选育和遗传改良提供参考。

Yellow leaf mutation are ideal materials for basic research with high mutation frequency and easily identified in nature. They also have important value in variety breeding and improvement. Functions and mechanisms of genes related to leaf color mutation were reviewed from perspectives of chlorophyll synthesis, heme metabolism, chloroplast development and chloroplast protein metabolism. The current researches on mechanism of leaf mutants focused on the functions of genes related to leaf color mutation, but nucleoplasm signal transduction, transcription factor and regulatory element were only studied by a few. Therefore, in the future, leaf mutants, which is ideal materials, can be used to study the function of the related genes and their interactions, and switch the research from single gene to multiple genes or even functional genomes, especially strengthen the study in nucleoplasm signal transduction, transcription factor and regulatory element. As a special germplasm resource, leaf mutants can increase plant mutation frequency through artificial induction, obtain large amount of leaf mutants within short period of time and apply them into the study in interactions between gene functions and genes, and proude reference for yellow leaf plants breeding and gentic improvement. 

基金项目:
国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0600605);江西省林业科技创新专项项目(201406);广西农业科学院基本科研业务专项项目(2017YT47)
作者简介:
*为通讯作者,章挺(1981-),副研究员,主要从事林木栽培及育种研究工作,E-mail:zhangtycx@163.com。刘新亮(1986-),博士,主要从事观赏植物选育及栽培研究工作,E-mail:liuxinliang1988@163.com
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