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早熟短果指型香蕉新品种桂蕉早1号的选育
及其高产栽培技术
作者: 牟海飞 刘洁云 韦绍龙 吴代东 黄伟华 吴艳艳 黄永才   苏祖祥 
单位: (广西农业科学院 生物技术研究所 南宁 530007) 
关键词: 香蕉 桂蕉早1号 早熟 短果指型 品种选育 高产栽培 
分类号:S668.1
出版年,卷(期):页码:2017,48(6):1048-1053
摘要:

【目的】选育出早熟香蕉新品种,为优化广西及其他香蕉栽培区的品种结构提供候选品种。【方法】对桂蕉6号组培苗的田间芽变单株进行繁殖与品系比较试验、优株选择和多点种植试验等,并观察其特征特性、抗性及产量表现。【结果】桂蕉早1号属中干香蕉的中矮把品种,生育期340~385 d,采收期比桂蕉6号缩短15~30 d;果指粗短,比桂蕉6号短2.7~3.1 cm;假茎高220.0~250.0 cm,比桂蕉6号矮8.3%~16.7%。桂蕉早1号在广西的栽培密度1800~1950株/ha;2011~2014年在广西南宁市武鸣县种植试验中,新植组培苗及宿根第一、二造的平均株产量分别为20.1、25.2和24.3 kg,折合平均产量为36180.0、45360.0和43740.0 kg/ha;商品率96.8%~99.1%。桂蕉早1号果实充分后熟后,皮色金黄,香味浓郁,口感丝滑香甜,综合品质优于桂蕉6号和广西矮蕉。桂蕉早1号不抗香蕉枯萎病,不耐霜冻,广西各蕉区宜在12月中旬前收获完毕。该品种于2016年8月通过广西农作物品种审定委员会审定。【结论】桂蕉早1号属中干香蕉的中矮把品种,生育期较目前广西香蕉主栽品种短,能有效错开产出高峰期,有利于调节香蕉产期布局,综合品质优于桂蕉6号和广西矮蕉,可在桂南、桂东南及右江河谷等蕉区推广种植。

【Objective】In the present study, new early maturing banana varieties were bred in order to provide candidate varieties for optimizing the variety structure of Guangxi and other banana cultivation areas. 【Method】In the present study, mutant plants derived from Guijiao 6 plantlet in field were used and conducted reproduction and strain comparison, superior individual selection and multi-location planting. The characteristics, resistance and yield performance were observed and investigated. 【Result】The bred banana variety Guijiaozao 1 was characterized by moderate plant height, and 340-385 d of growth duration. Its harvesting stage shortened 15-30 d compared to Guijiao 6; the fruit finger was short and stubby, 2.7-3.1 cm shorter than that of Guijiao 6. Its pseudostem was 220.0-250.0 cm and 8.3%-16.7% shorter than that of Guijiao 6. The planting density of Guijiaozao 1 in Guangxi was 1800-1950 plant/ha. The yields per plant of Guijiaozao 1 new planting, the 1st and 2nd ratoon cropping in Wuming, Guangxi during 2011-2014 were 20.1, 25.2 and 24.3 kg/plant, equalled to 36180.0, 45360.0 and 43740.0 kg/ha respectively. The commodity rate of Guijiaozao 1 was 96.8%-99.1%. The fruit of Guijiaozao 1 after  maturation showed golden-yellow peel and aromatic flavor, sweet and delicious taste, and its comprehensive quality was superior to Guijiao 6 and Guangxi Aijiao. Guijiaozao 1 performed no resistance to banana fusarium wilt and frost. It was better to end harvest before middle of December in Guangxi. In August, 2016, Guijiaozao 1 was certified and registered by Guangxi Committee for Crop Variety Registration. 【Conclusion】Guijiaozao 1, a moderate plant height banana variety, the growth duration is shorter than current main banana varieties in Guangxi. Therefore it can effectively stagger banana maturing peak stage and regulate arrangement of maturing stage. Guijiaozao 1 fruit comprehensive quality is better than Guijiao 6 and Guangxi Aijiao, therefore it can be promoted in south, southeast and Youjiang Valley of Guangxi.

基金项目:
农业部“948”计划项目(2016-X22);广西香蕉创新团队栽培功能专家岗位项目(nycytxgxcxtd-04-18-1)
作者简介:
牟海飞(1968-),副研究员,主要从事热带、亚热带特色作物种质资源收集评价及开发利用研究工作,E-mail:haifei5052@ 126.com
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