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广西春大豆与玉米不同间作模式效益分析
作者: 陈文杰   汤复跃 韦清源 郭小红  渊* 
单位: (广西农业科学院 经济作物研究所 南宁 530007) 
关键词: 春大豆 玉米 间作 产量 效益 广西 
分类号:S344.2
出版年,卷(期):页码:2017,48(4):633-639
摘要:

【目的】探索适宜广西的春大豆与玉米间作种植模式,为当地推广大豆玉米间套种技术提供参考。【方法】试验设5种间作模式,分别为:玉米宽行120 cm、间种2行大豆(M120S2),玉米宽行160 cm、间种2行大豆(M160S2),玉米宽行160 cm、间种3行大豆(M160S3),玉米宽行200 cm、间种2行大豆(M200S2)和玉米宽行200 cm、间种3行大豆(M200S3)。对照为常规种植的玉米单作模式(CKM)和大豆单作模式(CKS)。调查不同种植模式下春大豆、玉米的农艺性状、产量及其相关性状,并对比分析不同种植模式的综合经济效益。【结果】2013~2014两年试验结果表明,随着玉米宽行行距增加,春大豆的茎粗、主茎节数、单株粒重呈递增趋势,产量随之增加。在相同宽行行距(160和200 cm)条件下,种植3行春大豆较种植2行的产量高。玉米的穗粗和百粒重随着其宽行行距的增加呈逐渐变小趋势,产量逐渐降低。5种间作模式中,以M160S3和M120S2模式的经济效益较好,分别为18345.53和18094.18元/ha。【结论】综合考虑不同种植模式的经济效益及小型机械操作,以在160 cm宽行玉米中间作3行春大豆较适合在广西地区推广应用。

【Objective】Proper different spring soybean-maize intercropping patterns for Guangxi were explored in order to provide technical references form promotion of soybean-maize intercropping in Guangxi. 【Method】Five intercropping patterns were set in the experiment: maize wide row spacing 120 cm and planting two lines of soybean(M120S2),maize wide row spacing 160 cm and planting two lines of soybean(M160S2), maize wide row spacing 160 cm and planting three lines of soybean(M160S3), maize wide row spacing 200 cm and planting two lines of soybean(M200S2) and maize wide row spacing 200 cm and planting three lines of soybean(M200S3). The controls were single cropping maize(CKM) and single cropping soybean(CKS). Agronomic traits, yields and related traits of spring soybean and maize were recorded under different cropping patterns and the comprehensive economic benefits of each pattern were analyzed and compared. 【Result】The two year field experiment during 2013-2014 indicated that, as maize wide row spacing extended, spring soybean stem diameter,caulis node number,grain weight per plant increased,thus the yield was improved. Under the same wide row spacing(160 and 200 cm),the soybean yield of three lines growing between maize wide row was higher than that of two lines. However,as wide row spacing enlarged,maize ear diameter,100-grain weight and yield decreased. Among the five patterns,economic benefits of M160S3 pattern(18345.53 yuan/ha) and M120S2 pattern(18094.18 yuan/ha) were better than the others. 【Conclusion】Considering economic benefits of each cropping pattern and small agricultural machinery operation, maize wide row spacing 160 cm and planting three lines of soybean is suitable for promotion in Guangxi.

基金项目:
现代农业产业技术体系重点项目(CARS-04C-ES30);广西科学研究与技术开发计划项目(桂科攻1598006-4-6);广西农业科学院基本科研业务费专项项目(2015YT59,2015YM21)
作者简介:
*为通讯作者,陈渊(1971-),研究员,主要从事大豆育种、栽培及示范推广研究工作,E-mail:chenyuan313@163.com。陈文杰(1982-),主要从事大豆育种、栽培及耐逆境研究工作,E-mail:cenwenji1030@163.com
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