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施氮方式和灌水量对甘蔗农艺性状、
养分累积及产量的影响
作者: 刘亚男 马海洋 冼皑敏 王琚钢   石伟琦* 
单位: (中国热带农业科学院 南亚热带作物研究所/海南省热带作物营养重点实验室 广东 湛江 524091) 
关键词: 甘蔗 施氮方式 灌水量 农艺性状 养分累积 产量 
分类号:S566.101
出版年,卷(期):页码:2017,48(2):252-258
摘要:

【目的】探讨不同施氮方式和灌水量对甘蔗生长、养分累积及产量的影响,为合理利用水肥资源实现甘蔗高产高效栽培提供参考依据。【方法】以新台糖22号(ROC22)为试验材料,设不施氮肥、不灌水(CK),氮肥作基肥一次性施用、灌水750 mm(T1),氮肥作基施一次性施用、灌水1000 mm(T2),氮肥作基施一次性施用、灌水1250 mm(T3),氮肥分3次施用(基肥30%、分蘖肥30%、攻茎肥40%)、灌水750 mm(T4),氮肥分3次施用、灌水1000 mm(T5)和氮肥分3次施用、灌水1250 mm(T6)7个处理,测定各处理甘蔗农艺性状、各部位养分含量、产量和蔗汁锤度等指标,研究不同施氮方式和灌水量对甘蔗生长与产量的影响。【结果】中、高灌水量(1000和1250 mm,下同)时,分3次施氮处理甘蔗的株高高于一次性施氮处理,在5~7月差异显著(P<0.05)。在甘蔗成熟期,茎干重表现为T1>T2>T3、T6>T4>T5、T1>T4、T2>T5和T3<T6;叶干重表现为T1<T4、T2<T5和T3<T6;叶鞘干重表现为T1>T4、T2>T5和T3<T6;干物质累积总量表现为T1>T2>T3、T6>T4>T5、T1>T4、T2>T5和T3<T6,干物质净累积量表现为T3>T1>T2、T4>T6>T5、T1<T4、T2<T5和T3<T6。成熟期茎和叶部的氮累积量均表现为分3次施氮处理高于一次性施氮处理。一次性施氮和分3次施氮处理的产量均以高灌水量处理最高,分别为104.68和97.09 t/ha;中、高灌水量时,一次性施氮处理的产量高于分3次施氮处理。一次性施氮和分3次施氮处理的蔗汁锤度均以高灌水量处理最低;同一灌溉水平时,一次性施氮处理的蔗汁锤度高于分3次施氮处理。【结论】高灌水量下,氮肥作基肥一次性施用有利于提高蔗茎产量,蔗汁品质也有保障。

【Objective】The present study revealed the effects of different nitrogen application methods and irrigation amounts on agronomic characters,nutrient accumulation and yield of sugarcane, in order to provide reference for achieving high-yield and high-efficiency sugarcane cultivation through fertilizer resources. 【Method】With ROC22 as test material,seven different treatments were conducted: no nitrogen and no water (CK), nitrogen as base fertilizer for one time, irrigation amount 750 mm(T1), nitrogen as base fertilizer for one time, irrigation amount 1000 mm(T2), nitrogen as base fertilizer for one time, irrigation amount 1250 mm(T3), nitrogen application for three times(base fertilizer 30%, nitrogen at tillering stage 30% and nitrogen at elongating stage 40%), irrigation amount 750 mm(T4), nitrogen application for three times, irrigation amount 1000 mm(T5), nitrogen application for three times, irrigation amount 1250 mm(T6). Agronomic characters,nutrient contents in different organs,yield and sugarcane juice brix were measured to study the effects of different nitrogen application methods and irrigation amounts on sugarcane growth and yield. 【Result】In medium and large irrigation amounts treatments(1000 and 1250 mm, the same below), the plant heights of sugarcanes in three-time nitrogen applications treatments was higher than those in one-time nitrogen application, and the difference was significant between May to July(P<0.05). At maturity stage,dry weight of stalk was T1>T2>T3,T6>T4>T5,T1>T4,T2>T5,T3<T6,dry weight of leaf was T1<T4,T2<T5,T3<T6,and dry weight of sheath was T1>T4,T2>T5,T3<T6. Total dry matter accumulation was T1>T2>T3,T6>T4>T5,T1>T4,T2>T5,T3<T6,and net accumulation of dry matter was T3>T1>T2,T4>T6>T5,T1<T4,T2<T5,T3<T6. At maturity stage, nitrogen accumulations in stalk and leaf of sugarcanes in three-time nitrogen applications were higher than those in one-time nitrogen application. Sugarcane yield turned out to be the highest with large irrigation amount in both one-time nitrogen application and three-time nitrogen applications treatments, and the yields was 104.68 and 97.09 t/ha respectively. In medium and high irrigation amounts treatments, sugarcane yield was higher when nitrogen was applied for one time. In both one-time and three-time nitrogen applications, sugarcane juice brix in large irrigation amount treatment was lower. When irrigation amount was the same, sugarcane juice brix in one-time nitrogen application was higher than three-time nitrogen applications. 【Conclusion】Large irrigation amount and one-time nitrogen application as base fertilizer can increase sugarcane yield and maintain the quality.

基金项目:
国家科技支撑计划项目(2014BAD16B06);中国热带农业科学院南亚热带作物研究所基本科研业务费专项项目 (1630062014014)
作者简介:
*为通讯作者,石伟琦(1974-),博士,副研究员,主要从事植物营养与生态研究工作,E-mail:lynan1017@163.com。刘亚男(1987- ),主要从事植物营养研究工作,E-mail:lynan1017@163.com
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