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野生稻种质在水稻高产育种上的应用研究进展
作者: 盛文涛1  俊2  斌2 饶友生1 * 
单位: (1 南昌师范学院 生物技术研究所 南昌 330032 2 湖南杂交水稻研究中心/杂交水稻国家重点实验室 长沙 410125) 
关键词: 野生稻种质 栽培稻 遗传育种 研究进展 建议 
分类号:S511.9
出版年,卷(期):页码:2017,48(2):222-230
摘要:

野生稻种质拥有许多优良的性状和基因,与栽培稻的亲缘关系最近,是栽培稻遗传改良的重要候选资源。文章通过综述野生稻种质在常规稻、三系杂交稻、两系杂交稻上的应用研究进展,并结合生产实践对水稻高产育种方向提出了建议:在科研体制上应加强顶层设计,允许实施一定数量的中长期育种项目,为培育重大品种创造环境;对于普通野生稻的利用,宜选择具有所需优异性状的栽培稻作亲本进行回交、复交或选择不同野栽杂交后代中的优良株系进行兄妹交,使各亲本的优良基因结合于同一栽培品种上;通过胚拯救、转基因、花粉管导入或穗茎注射野生稻DNA、MAS等方法相结合、构建野生稻外源种质渗入的近等基因系和染色体片段替换系等生物技术手段,充分利用其优异性状;利用骨干亲本材料与野生稻种质资源构建遗传材料进行基础理论研究,同时利用MAS技术在骨干亲本材料中进行高产QTL遗传效应验证,从而促进遗传育种科研项目在实践中推广应用。

Wild rice, with many superior traits and genes, has the closest relatives with cultivated rice,which is the most important candidate for genetic improvement of cultivated rice. This article mainly reviewed the research progress and application of wild rice germplasm resources in conventional rice,three-line hybrid rice,two-line hybrid rice,and put forward some suggestions for high-yield rice breeding combining production practice:top-level design of scientific research system should be strengthened to allow the implementation of a certain number of middle and long term breeding programs,and create a favourable environment for cultivation of major varieties;cultivated rice with desired quality traits should be chosen for parents backcrossing and multi-crossing, or hybrid progenies with excellent traits in wild-cultivated derived population should conduct sib-crossing, so that superior genes of parents could combine in one cultivar; utilization of biological technologies such as embryo-rescue,transgene,pollen-tube import or ear-stem injection of wild rice DNA,MAS methods,construction of near isogenic lines and chromosome segment substitution lines with wild rice germplasm to use these excellent traits;research on basic theories using backbone parents materials and wild rice germplasm-derived lines, verification of high-yield QTL by MAS technique and promoted the application of genetic breeding projects in practice.

基金项目:
江西省教育厅科技项目(GJJ161243);南昌师范学院博士科研基金项目(NSBSJJ2015036)
作者简介:
*为通讯作者,饶友生(1965-),博士,教授,主要从事基因与基因组学研究工作,E-mail:rys8323571@aliyun.com。盛文涛(1984-),博士,主要从事水稻遗传育种研究工作,E-mail:shengwentao2003@163.com
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