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糖蜜酒精发酵液对香蕉产量、品质
及土壤理化性质的影响
作者: 韦绍龙1 黄素梅1 韦莉萍1  弟1 李朝生1 覃柳燕1 田丹丹1 
张进忠1
  维1 龙盛风1  柳1 2 * 
单位: (1 广西农业科学院 生物技术研究所 南宁 530007 2 农业部甘蔗遗传改良生物技术重点实验室/ 
关键词: 香蕉 糖蜜酒精发酵液 生长 产量 品质 土壤理化性质 
分类号:S668.1
出版年,卷(期):页码:2016,47(6):895-900
摘要:

【目的】在蕉园水肥一体化条件下,探讨施用糖蜜酒精发酵液对香蕉生长、品质和产量及蕉园土壤理化性质的影响,为广西蕉园推广酒精发酵液定量还田技术提供依据。【方法】进行常规滴灌施肥(对照)及在此基础上配施糖蜜酒精发酵液(120 t/ha,锤度7.8)的对比试验,调查不同处理对不同代龄香蕉产量、品质性状、叶片营养元素及土壤营养元素的影响。【结果】施用糖蜜酒精发酵液的香蕉株高、茎围、青叶数、单果重、果指长度、抽蕾率和单株产量表现均优于常规滴灌施肥,香蕉果皮厚度增加2.4%~5.2%,香蕉收获时间提前3~5 d,组培一代、宿根一代、宿根二代香蕉产量分别为49312.5、53437.5和52875.0 kg/ha,分别比常规滴灌施肥增加5.62%、8.78%和6.82%,纯收益增加5100.0、8137.5和6750.0元/ha。此外,糖蜜酒精发酵液对蕉园土壤具有较好的肥效,土壤全K、速效K、全N、有机质等均有不同程度的增加,其中组培一代香蕉园的土壤全K含量比常规滴灌施肥高0.27%(绝对值),速效K含量是常规滴灌施肥的2.72倍。【结论】在蕉园水肥一体化条件下,施用120 t/ha糖蜜酒精发酵液对香蕉生长和产量具有明显的促进作用,且有利于提高蕉园土壤肥力,即糖蜜酒精发酵液可作为香蕉水肥一体化的一种补充性肥源。

【Objective】Under the condition of integration of water and fertilizer, the effects of molasses alcohol fermentation liquor(MAFL) on growth, quality and yield of banana, and physical and chemical properties of soil in banana plantation were studied in order to provide references for recommending MAFL returning quantitative technology in Guangxi banana plantation. 【Method】The conventional fertigation was used as the control, and the comparative test was conducted in banana plantation by using 120 t/ha of MAFL(Brix 7.8) combining with conventional fertigation. The yield, quality traits, leaf nutrient elements of different cropping bananas and soil nutrient elements were investigated between two treatments at different stages. 【Result】It found that the plant height, diameter width, green leaves, weight and length per fruit finger for the MAFL treatment performed better than those of the control, as well as flower budding rate and yield per plant. The fruit peel diameter of treated banana increased by 2.4%-5.2%, and the harvested time was shortened 3-5 days. As a result, the yields of the 1st generation plantlet cropping(planted in 2012), the 1st and 2nd cropping ratoons(planted in 2011 and 2010, respectively) for MAFL treatment were 49312.5, 53437.5 and 52875.0 kg/ha, which increased by 5.62%, 8.78% and 6.82% as compared to the control; and their banana net income increased by 5100.0, 8137.5 and 6750.0 yuan/ha. Furthermore, MAFL application also presented well fertilizing effects on soil of banana plantation. The total K and N, available K, organic matter contents of soil in banana plantation showed increasing trend at varying degree; of which, the content of total K in soil for the 1st cropping banana plantation was 0.27%(absolute value) higher than that of the control, and the available K was 2.77 times higher than that of the control. 【Conclusion】Under the condition of integration of water and fertilizer, applying 120 t/ha of MAFL in banana plantation shows significant improving roles on banana growth and yield, enhancing soil fertility, so MAFL could be used as a supplement fertilizer source for integration of water and fertilizer in banana plantation.

基金项目:
广西科学研究与技术开发计划项目(桂科合15104001-1);广西农业科学院基本科研业务专项项目(桂农科2014YZ09,桂农科2015YT53);南宁市科学研究与技术开发计划项目(20142316)
作者简介:
*为通讯作者,杨柳(1983-),博士,副研究员,主要从事香蕉抗病育种及生理生态研究工作,E-mail:yangliutibs@126.com。韦绍龙(1964-),副研究员,主要从事香蕉组织培养及病害防控研究工作,E-mail:weishaolong@gxaas.net
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