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荸荠开花习性和人工辅助授粉结实特性观察
作者: 欧昆鹏1 何芳练1  文1 高美萍1 陈丽娟1  媛2  艳1 张尚文1 
单位: (1 广西农业科学院 生物技术研究所 南宁 530007  2 广西农业科学院 国际合作处 南宁 530007) 
关键词: 荸荠 人工辅助授粉 自然授粉 结子率 时间差 
分类号:S645.3
出版年,卷(期):页码:2016,47(6):879-882
摘要:

【目的】了解荸荠开花习性和人工辅助授粉结实特性,为荸荠杂交育种提供参考依据。【方法】以桂蹄2号荸荠为材料,观察荸荠茎及花序生长情况,了解荸荠开花规律和雌雄蕊生长情况,并通过显微观察人工辅助授粉和自然授粉部位,对比荸荠在人工辅助授粉和自然授粉后的结子情况。【结果】同一花茎的花序雌、雄蕊分别在花茎约长37.00和46.90 cm时达到盛期,两者平均高度差为9.84 cm,时间差为28.5 h;上午9:00~11:00是进行人工辅助授粉的最佳时段,授粉雌蕊约7.0 h后迅速萎蔫;通过人工辅助授粉的结子率明显高于自然授粉的结子率,人工辅助授粉的结子率为43.0%,自然授粉的结子率仅为15.5%。【结论】人工辅助授粉可大幅度提高荸荠结子率,且荸荠两性花的特性和雌、雄蕊生长及盛期均存在时间差,是荸荠开展人工辅助授粉的关键因素。

【Objective】Flowering habit of water chestnut and its fruiting characteristics after artificial supplementary pollination were studied, in order to provide references for crossbreeding of water chestnut. 【Method】Using Guiti 2 as materials, the growth situation of stalk and inflorescence of water chestnut was observed, so as to understand flowering regulation of water chestnut and growth of stamen and pistil. And after artificial supplementary pollination and spontaneous pollination, the inflorescences were observed with microscope, respectively, and then the fruiting situations of water chestnut were compared. 【Result】The results showed that, the stamen and pistil on the same scape reached peak when the lengths of scape were about 37.00 and 46.90 cm, respectively, both height difference was 9.84 cm, and time difference was 28.5 h. Furthermore, 9:00-11:00 am was the optimal period for artificial supplementary pollination, pistil instantly withered about 7.0 h after artificial supplementary pollination. The seed setting rates after artificial supplementary pollination and spontaneous pollination was 43.0% and 15.5%, respectively. 【Conclusion】The artificial supplementary pollination can significantly improve seed setting rates of water chestnut. Furthermore, there still exist time differences among characteristics, growth and full bloom of stamen and pistil, so the time difference was key factor for artificial supplementary pollination.

基金项目:
国家科技支撑计划项目(2012BAD27B01);广西农业科学院科技发展基金项目(桂农科2014JQ06);广西农业科学院特色水生作物研究团队项目(2015YT55)
作者简介:
欧昆鹏(1981-),主要从事作物遗传育种研究工作,E-mail:oukunpeng@gxaas.net
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