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飞机草不定根形成过程中的结构和生理变化
作者: 何海旺1 2 罗海玲1 3 龚明霞1 3 何龙飞1 * 
单位: (1 广西大学 农学院 南宁 530005 2 广西农业科学院 生物技术研究所 南宁 530007  
关键词: 飞机草 外来入侵种 无性繁殖 不定根 解剖结构 生理特性 
分类号:S451.01
出版年,卷(期):页码:2015,46(8):1378-1384
摘要:

【目的】研究飞机草不定根形成过程中的解剖结构和生理变化,了解其不定根形成特性,为进一步阐明飞机草无性繁殖机制奠定基础。【方法】通过扦插试验,研究飞机草在不同基质、不同含水量中的生根情况,并在生根过程中进行解剖结构观察,同时测定相关内源激素含量、POD活性及黄酮含量。【结果】飞机草在菜园土、红土、河沙3种基质中生根率均为100.0%。极度干旱(水分含量0)或水分过多时(80%)不能生根,在基质含水量为20%~60%时均能迅速长出不定根。解剖结构发现,飞机草茎段皮层中没有环状厚壁细胞,皮层薄且髓部较大,不定根原基产生于束中形成层,生根过程中没有愈伤组织产生,根原基形成和不定根突破表皮的时间分别为扦插后3和7 d。在飞机草不定根形成过程中,相关生理指标均发生显著变化;IAA含量总体呈上升—下降—上升的变化趋势,ABA及黄酮作为生根抑制物,其含量在生根过程中总体呈下降趋势;ZT含量峰值出现在扦插后3 d;POD活性最低值出现在扦插后1 d,最高值出现在扦插后3 d,且生根过程中的活性比未扦插时极显著升高。【结论】飞机草不定根形成具有极强的环境适应性,其解剖结构和扦插过程中内源激素含量的变化均符合易生根植物特征。

【Objective】The anatomic structure and physiological changes of Chromolaena odorata were investigated to understand rooting characteristics during formation of adventitious root, in order to lay the foundation for further clarifying its strong asexual reproduction mechanism. 【Method】The formation of C. orodata adventitious root in different base and water contents of base materials was investigated respectively in the cutting experiment. Meanwhile, the changes of anatomic structure were observed, and the endogenous hormones content, POD activity and flavonoids content were determined. 【Result】The results showed that the rooting rates reached up to 100.0% in 3 base materials viz., vegetable garden soil, red soil and river sand, respectively. The cuttings were easy to form adventitious root in base materials with water content of 20%-60%, while which could’t form adventitious root in base materials with water content at 0 or above 80%. The observed result of anatomical structure showed that C. orodata stem had thin cortex and large pith, without ringlike sclerenchyma cells in cortex, the adventitious root primordium of cuttings was generated from fascicular cambium, and there was not callus formation in rooting process, moreover, the formations of root primordium and adventitious root were found on 3 and 7 d after cutting, respectively. In addition, during adventitious root formation, the physiological indexes changed significantly; the content of IAA first increased, then decreased and increased again; ABA and flavonoids as rooting inhibitors, their content presented declining trend on the whole; ZT content was peaked on 3 d after cutting. Furthermore, the minimum POD activity was found on 1 d after cutting, the maximum was found on 3 d after cutting, and the POD activity in rooting process after cutting was significantly higher than that before cutting. 【Conclusion】C. orodata has high environmental adaptability during adventitious root formation, and its anatomic structure and change of endogenous hormones content in the process of cuttage are in accordance with feature of being easy to form adventitious roots.

基金项目:
广西自然科学基金项目(桂科自0832047);广西研究生教育创新计划项目(GXU11T31086)
作者简介:
*为通讯作者,何龙飞(1967-),博士,教授,主要从事植物生理研究工作, E-mail:lfhe@gxu.edu.cn。何海旺(1979-),主要从事生物技术研究工作,E-mail:gxhhw@gxaas.net
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